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コウビルド英英和辞典

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The publishers would like to acknowledge the following for their invaluable contribution to the original COBUILD concept :
John Sinclair
Patrick Hanks
Gwyneth Fox
Richard Thomas
Stephen Bullion, Jeremy Clear, Rosalind Combley, Susan Hunston, Ramesh Krishnamurthy, Rosamund Moon, Elizabeth Potter
Jane Bradbury, Joanna Channell, Alice Deignan, Andrew Delahunty, Sheila Dignen, Gill Francis, Helen Liebeck, Elizabeth Manning, Carole Murphy, Michael Murphy, Jonathan Payne, Elaine Pollard, Christina Rammell, Penny Stock, John Todd, Jenny Watson, Laura Wedgeworth, John Williams
We would like to acknowledge the assistance of the many hundreds of individuals and companies who have kindly given permission for copyright material to be used in the Bank of English™. The written sources include many national and regional newspapers in Britain and overseas; magazines and periodical publishers; and book publishers in Britain, the United States and Australia. Extensive spoken data has been provided by radio and television broadcasting companies; research workers at many universities and other institutions; and numerous individual contributors. We are grateful to them all.
Consultant
Paul Nation
Reviewers-Japan
Ichiro Akano
Kyoto Gaikokugo University
Kyoto, Japan
Caroline Lloyd
Hiroshima YMCA Language School
Hiroshima, Japan
James Ronald
Hiroshima Shudo University
Hiroshima, Japan
Yukio Tono
Tokyo Gaikokugo University
Tokyo, Japan
Tomohiro Yanagi
Chofu University
Kasugai City, Aichi, Japan

JOHN SINCLAIR

Founding Editor-in-Chief, Collins COBUILD Dictionaries
1933-2007
John Sinclair was Professor of Modern English Language at the University of Birmingham for most of his career; he was an outstanding scholar, one of the very first modern corpus linguists, and one of the most open-minded and original thinkers in the field. The COBUILD project in lexical computing, funded by Collins, revolutionized lexicography in the 1980s, and resulted in the creation of the largest corpus of English language texts in the world.
Professor Sinclair personally oversaw the creation of this very first electronic corpus, and was instrumental in developing the tools needed to analyze the data. Having corpus data allowed Professor Sinclair and his team to find out how people really use the English language, and to develop new ways of structuring dictionary entries. Frequency information, for example, allowed him to rank senses by importance and usefulness to the learner (thus the most common meaning should be put first); and corpus highlights collocates (the words which go together), information which had only been sketchily covered in previous dictionaries. Under his guidance, his team also developed a full-sentence defining style, which not only gave the user the sense of a word, but showed that word in grammatical context.
When the first Collins COBUILD Dictionary of English was published in 1987, it revolutionized dictionaries for learners, completely changed approaches to dictionary-writing, and led to a new generation of corpus-driven dictionaries and reference materials for English language learners.
Professor Sinclair worked on the Collins COBUILD range of titles until his retirement, when he moved to Florence, Italy and became president of the Tuscan Word Centre, an association devoted to promoting the scientific study of language. He remained interested in dictionaries until his death, and the Collins COBUILD range of dictionaries remains a testament to his revolutionary approach to lexicography and English language learning. Professor Sinclair will be sorely missed by everyone who had the great pleasure of working with him.

BENEFITS OF SEMIBILINGUAL DICTIONARY

Collins COBUILD and Heinle are pleased to offer a new type of dictionary for Japanese learners of English. The Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary of American English, English/Japanese is a semibilingual dictionary designed for high intermediate or advanced level learners of English.
This semibilingual dictionary includes all the features of a COBUILD monolingual dictionary, such as full sentence definitions and corpus-based examples.
Additionally, for learners who feel they would benefit from access to Japanese translations, they are included for all definitions, senses, examples, and explanatory terms.
The Japanese translations are presented on the same page as the English text but in separate, parallel column for easy reference.
Japanese translations are included to complement the English material and provide additional support to the learner when they encounter a difficult word or expression.
The index lists the translations found in the dictionary and directs the learner, in Japanese, to the relevant English entry.
Thus users have all the information on meaning and usage typically found in COBUILD dictionaries, but with plenty of support in Japanese.

GUIDE TO KEY FEATURES

Through a collaborative initiative, Collins COBUILD and Heinle is co-publishing a dynamic new line of learner's dictionaries offering unparalleled pedagogy and learner resources.
Definitions PLUS
Definitions PLUS Collocations - Each definitions is written in simple, natural English and shows which words are most typically used with the target word.
Definitions PLUS Grammar - Each definitions includes the most representative grammatical patterns to help the learner use English correctly.
Definitions PLUS Natural English - Each definitions is a model of how to use the language appropriately and idiomatically.
hyouji_eej
 MENU TO HELP NAVIGATE LONGER ENTRIES
 FREQUENCY INFORMATION
◆◆◆” indicates high frequency word.
 GRAMMATICAL INFORMATION AND PATTERNS
 AUTHENTIC SAMPLES FROM CORPUS
 INFLECTED FORMS
The Bank of English™ is the original and the most current computerized corpus of authentic American English.
This robust research tool was used to create each definition. All sample sentences are drawn from the rich selection that the corpus offers.

INTRODUCTION

A dictionary is probably the single most important reference book that a learner of English can buy. At Collins we do our best to ensure that our dictionaries live up to all expectations. This Collins Cobuild Advanced Dictionary of American English, English/Japanese is a new type of dictionary. It is especially designed for Japanese learners who already have a good working knowledge of English, but who may not be entirely comfortable using a monolingual English dictionary. All the features of a monolingual dictionary are included, with Japanese translations provided for all senses, examples and explanatory terms. The dictionary also includes an index which lists alphabetically the translations found in the dictionary and which directs you to the relevant English entry through the medium of Japanese.
The corpus
The Collins Cobuild Advanced Dictionary of American English, English/Japanese like all Collins dictionaries, is based on a corpus, the Bank of English™, part of the Collins Word Web, which now contains over 650 million words of contemporary English. The corpus is central to the compilation of COBUILD dictionaries. It enables the dictionary editors to look at how the language works and make evidence-based statements about the meanings, patterns and uses of words with confidence and accuracy.
Content
A dictionary must present the most important facts about languages, and dictionary compilers need good evidence to be able to make their selections. It is much easier to decide which words to include, and which to omit, when we have accurate statistical information from such a vast database of language as the Bank of English™. This enables the compilers to look at the relative frequency of words and to identify and highlight the 2,500 most frequently used words in English. These words account for over 75% of all English usage, so it is easy to see why they are important.
Definitions
One of the most distinctive feature of all COBUILD dictionaries is the use of full English sentences in the definitions, explaining the meaning in the way that one person might explain it to another. They give the user much more than the meaning of the word they are looking up, and also contain information on usage, register, typical context, and syntax. The fullness of the definitions will give learners of English confidence as they learn what words and phrases mean and how they are used.
Examples
All of the examples in this dictionary have been selected from the Bank of English™, and have been chosen carefully to show the collocates of a word-other words that are frequently used with the word we are defining-and the patterns in which it is used. Since the examples are genuine pieces of text, you can be sure that they show the word in use in a natural context.
Set structures
For each definition, the word or phrase being defined is printed in bold. In addition, we have indentified and highlighted in bold words which combine with the headword to make a very important or set grammatical structure or collocational pattern, for example, A band of people is ... If you say something to yourself, you think it ... If you are unable to do something, it is ...
Coverage
Today's learners of English need to be aware of the variation of language in different parts of the English-speaking world. The Collins Cobuild Advanced Dictionary of American English, English/Japanese includes useful notes to identify vocabulary and expressions from those parts of the world, particularly American and British English.
Usage notes
Throughout the text we have included a number of notes which give additional information about how words are used. There is a variety of useful information contained in these notes, which help to clarify important distinctions in usage and in grammar.
Culture notes
Extra information on culturally significant events, institutions, traditions, and custom is given in the form of a note following the relevant entry. Those notes are intended to help you gain a greater understanding of life and culture in English-speaking countries.
Complex entries
Entries which are long or complex are given special treatment to make them easier to navigate. A menu shows what sections the entry is divided into, and how they are ordered, so that you can immediately go to the correct section to find the meaning you want. For example, mean is divided into three sections, corresponding to its verb, adjective, and noun uses. The same principle is used for hold, where there is an important sense distinction running through its uses.
Grammatical information
Where relevant, useful information about the grammatical patterns is provided. This information appears immediately before the examples which further clarify the patterns.

GUIDE TO THE DICTIONARY ENTRIES

Definitions
One of the features of the Collins Cobuild Advanced Dictionary of American English, English/Japanese is that the definitions are written in full sentences, using vocabulary and grammatical structures that occur naturally with the word being explained. This enables us to give a lot of information about the way a word or meaning is used by speakers of the language. Whenever possible, words are explained using simple and more common words. This gives us a natural defining vocabulary with most words in our definitions being among the 2,500 commonest words of English. A Japanese translation is given for each sense of each words. For example, the verb bask has two senses, each of which has a Japanese translation :
If you bask in the sunshine, you lie somewhere sunny and enjoy the heat.
If you bask in someone's approval, favor, or admiration, you greatly enjoy their positive reaction toward you.
An individual sense of an English word may have more than one Japanese translation. For example, the noun jealousy has two different Japanese translations.
Information about collocates and structure
In our definitions, we show the typical collocates of a word : that is, the other words that are used with the word we are defining. For example, the definition of meaning 1 of the adjective savory says :
Savory food has a salty or spicy flavor father than a sweet one.
This shows that you use the adjective savory to describe food, rather than other things.
Meaning 1 of the verb wag says :
When a dog wags its tail, it repeatedly waves its tail from side to side.
This shows that the subject of meaning 1 of wag refers to a dog, and the object of the verb is “tail”.
Information about Japanese collocations, if any, is given after the translation.
Abstention is a formal act of not voting either for or against a proposal: (投票の)棄権
Information about grammar
The definitions also give information about the grammatical structures in which a word is used. For example, meaning 1 of the adjective candid says :
When you are candid about something or with someone, you speak honestly.
This shows that you use candid with the preposition “about” with something and “with” with someone.
Other definitions show other kinds of structure. Meaning 1 of the verb soften says :
If you soften something or it softens, it becomes less hard, stiff, or firm.
This shows that the verb is used both transitively and intransitively. In the transitive use, you have a human subject and a non-human object. In the transitive use, you have a non-human subject.
Finally, meaning 1 of compel says :
If a situation, a rule, or a person compels you to do something, they force you to do it.
This shows you what kinds of subject and object to use with compel, and it also shows that you typically use the verb in a structure with a to-infinitive.
Information about context and usage
In addition to information about collocation and grammar, definitions also can be used to convey your evaluation of something, for example, to express your approval or disapproval.
For example, here is the definition of unhelpful :
If you say that someone or something is unhelpful, you mean that they do not help you or improve a situation, and may even make things worse.
In this definition, the expressions “if you say that”, and “you mean that” indicate that these words are used subjectively, rather than objectively.
Other kinds of definition
We sometimes explain grammatical words and other function words by paraghrasing the word in context. For example, meaning 3 of through says :
To go through a town, area, or country means to travel across it or in it.
In many cases, it is impossible to paraphrase the word, and so we explain its function instead, For example, the definition of unfortunately says :
You can use unfortunately to introduce or refer to a statement when you consider that it is said or disappointing, or when you want to express regret.
Lastly, some definitions are expressed as if they are cross-references. For example :
Rd. is a written abbreviation for road.
e-commerce is the same as e-business.
If you need to know more about the words road or e-business, you look at those entries.
Style and Usage
Some words or meanings are used mainly by particular groups of people, or in particular social contexts. In this dictionary, where relevant, the definitions also give information about the kind of people who are likely to use a word or expression, and the type of social situation in which it is used.
In terms of geographical diversity, this dictionary focuses on American and British English using evidence from the Bank of English™. Where relevant, the American or British form is shown at its equivalent word or meaning.
This information is usually placed at the end of the definition, in small capitals and within square brackets. If more than one type of information is provided, they are given in a list.
The Japanese translation of this information is provided after the Japanese translation of the sense.
Geographical labels
am 米国英語: used mainly by speakers and writers in the US, and in other places where American English is used or taught. Where relevant the British equivalent is provided.
brit 英国英語 : used mainly by speakers and writers in Britain, and in other places where British English is used or taught. Where relevant the American equivalent is provided.
Other geographical labels are used in the text to refer to English as it is spoken in other parts of the world, e.g. australian, northern english, scottish.
Style labels
business 実業 : used mainly when talking about the field of business, e.g. annuity
computing コンピューティング : used mainly when talking about the field of computing, e.g. chat room
dialect 方言 : used in some dialects of English, e.g. ain't
formal 形式ばった : used mainly in official situations, or by political and business organizations, or when speaking or writing to people in authority, e.g. gracious
humorus ユーモアのある : used mainly to indicate that a word or expression is used in a humorous way, e.g. gents
informal くだけた : used mainly in informal situations, conversations, and personal letters, e.g. pep talk
journalism ジャーナリズム : used mainly in journalism, e.g. glass ceiling
legal 法律的 : used mainly in legal documents, in law courts, and by the police in official situations, e.g. manslaughter
literary 文語的 : used mainly in novels, poetry, and other forms of literature, e.g. plaintive
medical 医学の : used mainly in medical texts, and by doctors in official situations, e.g. psychosis
military 軍事的 : used mainly when talking or writing about military terms, e.g. armor
offensive 無礼な : likely to offend people, or to insult them; words labeled offensive should therefore usually be avoided, e.g. cripple
old-fashioned 古風な : generally considered to be old-fashioned, and no longer in common use, e.g. dashing
spoken 口調 : used mainly in speech rather than in writing, e.g. pardon
technical 技術的 : used mainly when talking or writing about objects, events, or processes in a specialist subject, such as business, science, or music, e.g. biotechnology
trademark 商標 : used to show a designated trademark, e.g. Biro
vulgar 下品な : used mainly to describe words which could be considered taboo by some people; words labeled vulgar should therefore usually be avoided, e.g. ball
written 書き言葉 : used mainly in writing rather than in speech, e.g. avail

PRAGMATICS LABELS

Many uses of words need more than a statement of meaning to be properly explained. People use words to do many things : give invitations, express their feelings, emphasize what they are saying, and so on. The study and description of the way in which people use language to do these things is called pragmatics.
In the dictionary, we draw attention to certain pragmatic aspects of words and phrases of English, paying special attention to those that, for cultural and linguistic reasons, we feel may be confusing to learners. The following labels are used :
approval 賛成 : used to show that you approve of the person or thing you are talking about, e.g. angelic
disapproval 不賛成 : used to show that you disapprove of the person or thing you are talking about, e.g. brat
emphasis 強調 : used to emphasize the point you are making, e.g. never-ending
feelings 感情 : used to express your feelings about something, or towards someone, e.g. unfortunately
formulae 決まり文句 : used in particular situations such as greeting and thanking people, or acknowledging something, e.g. hi, congratulations
politeness 丁寧 : used to express politeness, sometimes even to the point of being euphemistic. e.g. elderly
vagueness あいまいさ : used to show how certain you are about the truth or validity of your statements; this is sometimes called “hedging” or “modality”, e.g. presumably

PRONUNCIATION

The basic principle underlying the suggested pronunciations is “If you pronounce it like this, most people will understand you.” The pronunciations are therefore broadly based on the two most widely taught accents of English, GenAm or General American for American English, and RP or Received Pronunciation for British English.
For the majority of words, a single pronunciation is given, as most differences between American and British pronunciation are systematic. Where the usual British pronunciation differs from the usual American pronunciation more significantly, a separate transcription is given after the code brit. Where more than one pronunciation is common in either American or British in English, alternative pronunciations are given.
The pronunciations are the result of a program of monitoring spoken English and consulting leading reference works. The transcription system has developed from original work by Dr David Brazil for the Collins COBUILD English Language Dictionary. The symbols used in the dictionary are adapted from those of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), as standardized in the English Pronouncing Dictionary by Daniel Jones (14th Edition, revised by AC Gimson and SM Ramsaran 1988).

IPA SYMBOLS

Vowel SoundsConsonant Sounds
ɑcalm, ahbbed, rub
æact, massddone, red
aɪdive, cryffit, if
aʊout, downggood, dog
ɛmet, lend, penhhat, horse
eɪsay, weightyyellow, you
ɪfit, winkking, pick
ifeed, mellip, bill
ɒlot, spotəlhandle, panel
oʊnote, coatmmat, ram
ɔclaw, maulnnot, tin
ɔɪboy, jointənhidden, written
ʊcould, stoodppay, lip
uyou, userrun, read
ʌfund, mustssoon, bus
əfirst vowel in aboutttalk, bet
isecond vowel in veryvvan, love
usecond vowel in actualwwin, wool
xloch
zzoo, buzz
ʃship, wish
ʒmeasure, leisure
ŋsing, working
tʃcheap, witch
θthin, myth
ðthen, bathe
dʒjoy, bridge
Notes
/æ/ or /ɑ/
There are a number of words which use the /æ/ sound in GenAm and in most accent of English, but /ɑ/ in RP, such as ‘bath’ which is pronounced /bæθ/ in GenAm and /bɑθ/ in RP. This affects some words in which this vowel is followed by the sounds /f/, /nd/, /ns/, /nt/, /ntʃ/, /s/, /θ/. For example, ‘graph’, ‘command’, ‘answer’, ‘can’t’, ‘ranch’, ‘class’ and ‘bath’ are pronounced /græf/, /kəmænd/, /ænsər/, /kænt/, /ræntʃ/, /klæs/ and /bæθ/ in GenAm, but /grɑf/, /kəmɑnd/, /ɑ̈nsər/, /kɑnt/, /rɑntʃ/, /klɑs/ and /bɑθ/ in RP. However, there are exceptions to this such as ‘land’ /lænd/. In these cases, we show only the GenAm version as it is a common and acceptable pronunciation for British English, even though it is not RP.
/r/
In most accents of English, including GenAm, ‘r’ is always pronounced. One of the main ways in which RP differs is that ‘r’ is only pronounced as /r/ when the next sound is a vowel. Thus, in RP, ‘far gone’ is pronounced /fɑ̈ gɒn/ but ‘far out’ is pronounced /fɑ̈r aʊt/. Similarly, ‘fire’, ‘flour’, ‘fair’, ‘near’ and ‘pure’ are pronounced /faɪər/, /flaʊər/, /fɛər/, /nɪər/ and /pyʊər/ in GenAm, but /faɪə/, /flaʊə, /fɛə/ , /nɪə/ and /pyʊə/ in RP.
/oʊ/
This symbol is used to represent the sound /oʊ/ in GenAm, and also the sound /əʊ/ in RP, as these sounds are almost entirely equivalent.
/əl/ and /ən/
These show that /l/ and /n/ are pronounced as separate syllables :
handle /hændəl/
hidden /hɪdən/
Stress
Stress is shown by underlining the vowel in the stressed syllable :
two /tu/
result /rɪzʌlt/
disappointing /dɪsəpɔɪntɪŋ/
When a word is spoken in isolation, stress falls on the syllables which have vowels which are underlined. If there is one syllable underlined, it will have primary stress.
‘TWO’
‘reSULT’
If two syllables are underlined, the first will have secondary stress, and the second will have primary stress :
‘DISapPOINTing’
A few words are shown with three underlined syllables, for example ‘disqualification’ /dɪskwɒlɪfɪkeɪʃən/. In this case, the third underlined syllable will have primary stress, while the secondary stress may be on the first or second syllable :
‘DISqualifiCAtion’ or ‘disQUALifiCAtion’
GenAm usually prefers ‘dis-’, while RP tends to prefer ‘DIS-’.
In the case of compound words, where the pronunciation of each part is given separately, the stress pattern is shown by underlining the headword : ‘off-peak’, ‘first-class’, but ‘cake-pan’.
Stressed syllables
When words are used in context, the way in which they are pronounced depends upon the information units that are constructed by the speaker. For example, a speaker could say :
1
‘the reSULT was disapPOINTing’
2
‘it was a DISappointing reSULT’
3
‘it was VERy disappointing inDEED’
In(3), neither of the two underlined syllables in disappointing /dɪsəpɔɪntɪŋ/ receives either primary or secondary stress. This shows that it is not possible for a dictionary to predict whether a particular syllable will be stressed in context.
It should be noted, however, that in the case of adjectives with two stressed syllables, the second syllable often losses its stress when it is used before a noun :
‘an OFF-peak FARE’
‘a FIRST-class SEAT’
Two things should be noted about the marked syllables :
1
They can take primary or secondary stress in a way that is not shared by the other syllables.
2
Whether they are stressed or not, the vowel must be pronounced distinctly; it cannot be weakened to /ə/, /ɪ/ or /ʊ/.
These features are shared by most of the one-syllable words in English, which are therefore transcribed in this dictionary as stressed syllables :
two /tu/
inn /ɪn/
tree /tri/
Unstressed syllables
It is an important characteristic of English that vowels in unstressed syllables tend not to be pronounced clearly. Many unstressed syllables contain the vowel /ə/, a neutral vowel which is not found in stressed syllables. The vowels /ɪ/, or /ʊ/, which are relatively neutral in quality, are also common in unstressed syllables.
Single-syllable grammatical words such as ‘shall’ and ‘at’ are often pronounced with a weak vowel such as /ə/. However, some of them are pronounced with a more distinct vowel under certain circumstances, for example when they occur at the end of a sentence. This distinct pronunciation is generally referred to as strong form, and is given in this dictionary after the word STRONG.
shall /ʃəl, STRONG ʃæl/
at /ət, STRONG æt/

LIST OF GRAMMATICAL NOTATIONS

Word classes
adjectiveADJ形容詞
adverbADV副詞
auxiliary verbAUX助動詞
color wordCOLOR色彩語
combining formCOMB複合
conjunctionCONJ接続詞
conventionCONVENTION慣用表現
determinerDET限定詞
exclamationEXCLAM感嘆詞
fractionFRACTION端数
modal verbMODAL法動詞
count nounN-COUNT可算名詞
collective count nounN-COUNT-COLL集合可算名詞
family nounN-FAMILY家族名詞
noun in namesN-IN-NAMES名称中の名詞
mass nounN-MASS質量名詞
plural nounN-PLURAL複数名詞
proper nounN-PROPER固有名詞
collective proper nounN-PROPER-COLL集合的固有名詞
singular nounN-SING単数名詞
collective singular nounN-SING-COLL集合的単数名詞
title nounN-TITLE称号名詞
uncount nounN-UNCOUNT不可算名詞
collective uncount nounN-UNCOUNT-COLL集合的不可算名詞
variable nounN-VAR可変性名詞
collective variable nounN-VAR-COLL集合的可変性名詞
vocative nounN-VOC呼格名詞
negativeNEG否定語
numberNUM数詞
ordinalORD序数詞
phrasal verbPHRASAL VERB句動詞
phrasal verb-linkPHRASAL VERB-LINK
phrasal passive verbPHRASAL VERB-PASSIVE
phrasal reciprocal verbPHRASAL VERB-RECIP
phrasePHRASE
predeterminerPREDET前限定詞
prepositionPREP前置詞
pronounPRON代名詞
emphatic pronounPRON-EMPH強調的代名詞
indefinite pronounPRON-INDEF不定代名詞
negative indefinite pronounPRON-INDEF-NEG否定不定代名詞
negative pronounPRON-NEG否定代名詞
plural pronounPRON-PLURAL複数代名詞
possessive pronounPRON-POSS所有代名詞
reciprocal pronounPRON-RECIP相互代名詞
reflexive pronounPRON-REFL再帰代名詞
emphatic reflexive pronounPRON-REFL-EMPH強調的再帰代名詞
relative pronounPRON-REL関係代名詞
singular pronounPRON-SING単数代名詞
quantifierQUANT数量詞
negative quantifierQUANT-NEG否定数量詞
plural quantifierQUANT-PLURAL複数数量詞
question wordQUEST疑問詞
sound wordSOUND音声語
intransitive verbV-I自動詞
link verbV-LINK連結動詞
passive verbV-PASSIVE
reciprocal verbV-RECIP相互動詞
passive reciprocal verbV-RECIP-PASSIVE受動態相互動詞
transitive verbV-T他動詞
passive transitive verbV-T PASSIVE受動態他動詞
intransitive or transitive verbV-T/V-I
Words and abbreviations used in patterns
adjective groupadj
superlative formadj-superl
adverb groupadv
word or phrase indicating an amount of somethingamount
broad negativebrd-neg
clausecl
color wordcolor
comparative formcompar
continuouscont
definite noun groupdef-n
definite noun group with an uncount noundef-n-uncount
definite noun group with a noun in the pluraldef-pl-n
determinerdet
past participle of a verb-ed
noun group, adjective, adverb, or prepositional phrasegroup
imperativeimper
infinitive form of a verbinf
present participle of a verb-ing
interrogativeinterrog
clause beginning with likelike
noun or noun groupn
names of places or institutionsnames
negative wordneg
proper nounn-proper
numbernum
uncont noun or noun group with an uncount nounn-uncount
ordinalord
particle, part pf a phrasal verbP
passive voicepassive
pluralpl
noun in the plural, plural noun group, co-ordinated noun grouppl-n
plural numberpl-num
possessiveposs
prepositional phrase or prepositionprep
pronounpron
indefinite pronounpron-indef
reflexive pronounpron-refl
relative pronounpron-rel
question wordquest
singularsing
noun in the singularsing-n
supplementary information accompanying a nounsupp
that'-clausethat
the to-infinitive form of a verbto-inf
usuallyusu
verb or verb groupv
continuous verbv-cont
link verbv-link
wh-word, clause beginning with a wh-wordwh

EXPLANATION OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS

Introduction
For each use of each word in this dictionary, grammar information is provided. For a very few words, such as abbreviations, contractions and some words of foreign origin, no grammar is given, because the words do not belong to any word class, or are used so freely that every example could be given a different word class, e.g. AD, ditto, must've.
The grammar information that is given of three types :
1
the word class of the word : e.g. PHRASAL VERB, N-COUNT, ADJ, QUANT
2
restrictions or extensions to its behavior, compared to other words of that word class : e.g. usu passive, usu sing, also no det
3
the patterns that the word most frequently occurs in : e.g. N 'of' n, ADJ that, ADV with v
For all word classes, the patterns are given immediately before the examples they accompany.
The word class of the word being explained is in CAPITAL LETTERS. The order of items in a pattern is the order in which they normally occur in a sentence. Words in italics are words (not word classes) that occur in the pattern. Alternatives are separated by a slash (/).
Word classes
ADJ
An adjective can be graded or ungraded, or be in the comparative or the superlative form, e.g. He has been absent from his desk for two weeks ... the most accurate description of the killer to date ... The eldest child was a daughter called Fatiha.
Adjective patterns
ADJ n The adjective is always used before a noun, e.g. ... a governmental agency.
usu ADJ n The adjective is usually used before a noun. It is sometimes used after a link verb.
v-link ADJ The adjective is used after a link verb such as be or feel, e.g. He felt unwell. Adjectives with this label are sometimes used in other positions such as after the object of a verb such as make or keep, but never before a noun.
usu v-link ADJ The adjective is usually used after a link verb. It is sometimes used before a noun.
ADJ after v The adjective is used after a verb that is not a link verb, e.g. I wore a white dress and was barefoot.
n ADJ The adjective comes immediately after a noun, e.g. between archaeology proper and science-based archaeology.
det ADJ The adjective comes immediately after a determiner and before any other adjectives, and sometimes comes before numbers, e.g. You owe a certain person a sum of money. If the dictionary does not show that an adjective is used only or mainly in the pattern ADJ n and v-link ADJ, this means that the adjective is used freely in both patterns.
These main adjective patterns are sometimes combined with other patterns.
ADV
An adverb can be graded or ungraded, or be in the comparative or the superlative form. e.g. Much of our behavior is biologically determined ... I'll work hard ... Inflation is below 5% and set to fall further ... those areas furthest from the coast.
AUX
An auxiliary verb is used with another verb to add particular meanings to that verb, for example, to form the continuous aspect or the passive voice, or to form negatives and interrogatives. The verbs be, do, get and have have some senses in which they are auxiliary verbs.
COLOR
A color word refers to a color. It is like an adjective, e.g. the blue sky ... The sky was blue, and also like a noun, e.g. She was dressed in red ... several shades of yellow.
COMB
A combining form is a word which is joined with another word, usually with a hyphen, to form compounds, e.g. strawberry-flavored, business-speak. The word class of the compound is also given, e.g. COMB IN ADJ, COMB IN N-UNCOUNT.
CONJ
A conjunction usually links elements of the same grammatical type, such as two words or two clauses, e.g. She and Simon had already gone ... I sat on the chair to unwrap the package while he stood by.
CONVENTION
A convention is a word or a fixed phrase which is used in conversation, for example when greeting someone, apologizing, or replying, e.g. hello, sorry, no comment.
DET
A determiner is a word that is used at the beginning of a noun group, e.g. a tray, more time, some books, this amount. It can also be used to say who or what something belongs or relates to e.g. his face, my house, or to begin a question e.g. Whose car were they in?
EXCLAM
An exclamation is a word or phrase which is spoken suddenly, loudly, or emphatically in order to express a strong emotion such as shock or anger. Exclamations are often followed by exclamation marks, e.g. good heavens! Ouch!
FRACTION
A fraction is used in numbers, e.g. five and a half, two and two thirds; before of and a noun group, e.g. half of the money, a third of the children, an eighth of Russia's grain; after in or into, e.g. in half, into thirds. A fraction is also used like a count noun, e.g. two halves, the first quarter of the year.
MODAL
A modal is used before the infinitive form of a verb, e.g. You may go. In questions, it comes before the subject, e.g. Must you speak? In negatives, it comes before the negative word, e.g. They would not like this. It does not inflect, for example, it does not take an -s in the third person singular, e.g. She can swim.
N-COUNT
A count noun has a plural form, usually made by adding -s. When it is singular, it must have a determiner in front of it, such as the, her, or such, e.g. My cat is getting fatter ... She's a good friend.
N-COUNT-COLL
A collective count noun is a count noun which refers to a group of people or things. It behaves like a count noun, but when it is in the singular form it can be used with either a singular or plural verb, e.g. Their audience are much younger than the average ... The British audience has a huge appetite for serials ... Audiences are becoming more selective.
N-FAMILY
A family noun refers to a member of a family, e.g. father, mommy, and granny. Family nouns are count nouns which are typically used in the singular, and usually follow a possessive determiner. They are also vocative nouns. They are also proper nouns, used with no determiner, e.g. My mommy likes marzipan ... Tell them I didn't do it, Mommy ... Mommy's always telling me I'm too old for dolls.
N-IN-NAMES
The noun occurs in names of people, things, or institutions.
N-MASS
A mass noun typically combines the behavior of both count and uncount nouns in the same sense. It is used like an uncount noun to refer to a substance. It is used like a count noun to refer to a brand or type, e.g. Rinse in cold water to remove any remaining detergent ... Wash it in hot water with a good detergent ... We used several different detergents in our stain-removal tests.
N-PLURAL
A plural noun is always plural, and is used with plural verbs. If a pronoun is used to stand for the noun, it is a plural pronoun such as they or them, e.g. These clothes are ready to wear ... He expressed his condolences to the families of people who died in the incident. Plural nouns which end in -s usually lose the -s when they come in front of another noun, e.g. pants, pants leg. If they refer to a single object which has two main parts, such as jeans and glasses, the expression a pair of is sometimes used, e.g. a pair of jeans. This is shown as N-PLURAL : also 'a pair of' N.
N-PROPER
A proper noun refers to one person, place, thing, or institution, and begins with a capital letter. Many proper nouns are used without a determiner, e.g. ... Earth ; some must be used with the, and this is indicated : N-PROPER, 'the' N, e.g. the UK.
N-PROPER-COLL
A collective proper noun is a proper noun which refers to a group of people or things. It can be used with either a singular or a plural verb, e.g. The Senate is expected to pass the bill shortly ... The Houses of Parliament are the British parliament.
N-SING
A singular noun is always singular, and needs a determiner, e.g. ... to respect the environment ... Maureen was the epitome of sophistication. When only a or the is used, this is indicated : N-SING : 'a' N or N-SING : 'the' N, e.g. The traffic slowed to a crawl ... We dropped to the ground.
N-SING-COLL
A collective singular noun is a singular noun which refers to a group of people or things. It behaves like a singular noun, but can be used with either a singular or plural verb, e.g. The enemy were pursued for two miles ... Their defense has now conceded 12 goals in six games.
N-TITLE
A title noun is used to refer to someone who has a particular role or position. Titles come before the name of the person and begin with a capital letter, e.g. The Chancellor of the Exchequer.
N-UNCOUNT
An uncount noun refers to things that are not normally counted or considered to be individual items. Uncount nouns do not have a plural form, and are used with a singular verb. They do not need determiners, e.g. ... an area of outstanding natural beauty.
N-UNCOUNT-COLL
A collective uncount noun is an uncount noun which refers to a group of people or things. It behaves like an uncount noun, but can be used with either a singular or plural verb, e.g. ... Hearts is one of the four suits in a pack of playing cards ... Hearts are trumps.
N-VAR
A variable noun typically combines the behavior of both count and uncount nouns in the same sense (see N-COUNT, N-UNCOUNT). The singular form occurs freely both with and without determiners. Variable nouns also have a plural form, usually made by adding -s. Some variable nouns when used like uncount nouns refer to abstract things like hardship and technology, and when used like count nouns refer to individual examples or instances of that thing, e.g. Technology is changing fast ... They should be allowed to wait for cheaper technologies to be developed. Other refer to objects which can be mentioned either individually or generally, like potato and salad : you can talk about a potato, potatoes, or potato.
N-VAR-COLL
A collective variable noun is a variable noun which refers to a group of people or things. It behaves like a variable noun, but when it is singular it can be used with either a singular or a plural verb, e.g. The management is doing its best improve the situation.
N-VOC
A vocative noun is used when speaking directly to someone or writing to them. Vocative nouns do not need a determiner, but some may be used with a possessive determiner, e.g. Thank you, darling ... How are you, my darling?
NUM
A number is a word such as three and hundred. Numbers such as one, two, three are used like determiners, e.g. three bears; like adjectives, e.g. the four horsemen; like pronouns, e.g. She has three cases and I have two; and like quantifiers, e.g. Six of the boys stayed behind. Numbers such as hundred, thousand, million always follow a determiner or another number, e.g. two hundred people, the thousand horsemen, She has a thousand dollars and I have a million, A hundred of the boys stayed behind.
ORD
An ordinal is a type of number. Ordinals are used like adjectives, e.g. He was the third victim; like pronouns, e.g. the second of the two teams; like adverbs, e.g. The other team came first; and like determiners, e.g. Fourth place goes to Timmy.
PHRASAL VERB
A phrasal verb consists of a verb and one or more particles e.g. look after, look back, look down on. Some phrasal verbs are reciprocal link of passive verbs.
PHRASE
Phrases are groups of words which are used together with little variation and which have a meaning of their own, e.g. The emergency services were working against the clock.
PREDET
A predeterminer is used in a noun group before a, the, or another determiner, e.g. What a terrific idea! ... both the children ... all his life.
PREFIX
A prefix is a letter or group of letters, such as un- or multi-, which is added to the beginning of a word in order to form another word. For example, the prefix un- is added to happy to form unhappy
PREP
A preposition begins a prepositional phrase and is followed by a noun group or a present participle. Patterns for prepositions are shown in the dictionary only if they are restricted in some way. For example, if a preposition occurs only before a present participle, it is shown as PREP -ing.
PREP-PHRASE
A phrasal preposition is a phrase which behaves like a preposition, e.g. Prices vary according to the quantity ordered.
PRON
Pronouns are used like noun groups, to refer to someone or something that has already been mentioned or whose identity is known, e.g. They produced their own shampoos and haircare products, all based on herbal recipes ... two bedrooms, each with three beds. Some pronouns are further classified, for example as PRON-EMPH, PRON-INDEF, and so on.
PRON-EMPH
Emphatic pronouns are words like all, both, and each, when they are used to emphasize another noun or pronoun, e.g. We each have different needs and interests ... I wish you both a good trip.
PRON-INDEF
Indefinite pronouns are words like anyone, anything, everyone, and something, e.g. Why would anyone want that job? ... after everything else in his life had changed.
PRON-INDEF-NEG
Negative indefinite pronouns are words like none, no-one, and nothing, e.g. He searched for a sign of recognition on her face, but there was none ... Do our years together mean nothing?
PRON-NEG
Negative pronouns are words like neither, e.g. Neither seemed likely to be aware of my absence for long.
PRON-PLURAL
Plural pronouns are the plural pronouns, which include we, us, they, and them, e.g. Neither of us forgot about it.
PRON-POSS
A possessive pronoun is used to say who or what something belongs to or relates to. The possessive pronouns are mine, yours, his, hers, ours and theirs, e.g. That wasn't his fault, it was mine ... The author can report other people's results which more or less agree with hers.
PRON-RECIP
The reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another, e.g. We looked at each other in silence.
PRON-REFL
Reflexive pronouns are pronouns which are used as the object of a verb or preposition when they refer to the same person or thing as the subject of the verb. They are used in the same positions as other pronouns. The reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves, e.g. I asked myself what I would have done in such a situation ... One must apply oneself to the present.
PRON-REFL-EMPH
Emphatic reflexive pronouns are reflexive pronouns which are used for emphasis, often after another pronoun or at the end of a clause, e.g. A wealthy man like yourself is bound to make an enemy or two along the way ... The president himself is on a visit to Beijing... I made it myself.
PRON-REL
Relative pronouns are words like which and who, that introduce relative clauses. They are the subject or object of the verb in the relative clause, or the object of a preposition, e.g. ... those who eat out for a special occasion ... The largest asteroid is Ceres, which is about a quarter the size of the moon.
PRON-SING
Singular pronouns are the singular personal pronouns, which include I, me, he, him, she, her, it, and one, e.g. He didn't mean to be cruel but I cried my eyes out.
QUANT
A quantifier comes before of and a noun group, e.g. most of the house. If there are any restrictions on the type of noun group, this is indicated : QUANT 'of' def-n means that the quantifier occurs before of and a definite noun group, e.g. Most of the kids have never seen the sea.
QUANT-NEG
Negative quantifiers are words like neither, e.g. Neither of us felt like going out.
QUANT-PLURAL
Plural quantifiers are words like billions and millions which are followed by of and a noun group, e.g. ... for billions of years.
QUEST
A question word is a wh-word that is used to begin a question, e.g. Why didn't he stop me?
SOUND
Sound words are used before or after verbs such as go and say, e.g. Suddenly there was a loud crack.
SUFFIX
A suffix is a letter or group of letters such as -ly or -ness, which is added to the end of a word in order to form a new word, usually of a different word class, e.g. quick, quickly.
V-I
An intransitive verb is one which takes an indirect object or no object, e.g. The problems generally fall into two categories ... As darkness fell outside, they sat down to eat.
V-LINK
A link verb connects a subject and a complement. Most link verbs do not occur in the passive voice, e.g. be, become, taste, feel.
V-RECIP
Reciprocal verbs describe processes in which two or more people, groups, or things interact mutually : they do the same thing to each other, or participate jointly in the same action or event. Reciprocal verbs are used where the subject is both participants, e.g. Fred and Sally met ... The participants can also be referred to separately, e.g. Fred met Sally ... Fred argued with Sally. These patterns are reciprocal because they also mean that Sally met Fred and Sally argued with Fred. Note that many reciprocal verbs can also be used in a way that is not reciprocal. For example, Fred and Sally kissed is reciprocal, but Fred kissed Sally is not reciprocal (because it does not mean Sally also kissed Fred).
V-RECIP-PASSIVE
A passive reciprocal verb behaves like both a passive verb and a reciprocal verb, e.g. He never believed he and Susan would be reconciled.
V-T
A transitive verb is one which takes a direct object, e.g. He mailed me the contract.
V-T PASSIVE
A passive verb occurs in the passive voice only, e.g. The company is rumored to be a takeover target.
V-T / V-I
Some verbs may be a transitive or intransitive depending on how they are used, e.g. He opened the window and looked out ... The flower opens to reveal a bee.
Words and abbreviations used in patterns
In a pattern, the element in capital letters represents the word in the entry. All the other elements are in small letters. Items in italics show the actual word that is used, such as of. Items in roman print show the word class or type of clause that is used. For example :
N 'of' n means that the word being explained is a noun (N), and it is followed in the sentence by the word of and another noun or noun group (n).
ADV adj/adv means that the word being explained is an adverb (ADV), and it is followed in the sentence by an adjective (adj) or (/) another adverb (adv).
When the word in the entry occurs in a pattern, the element in capital letters is N for any kind of noun, ADJ for any kind of adjective, and so on. PHR is used for a phrase, and N is used to represent a noun in a phrase.
Words used to structure information in patterns
after : after v means after a verb. The word is used either immediately after the verb, or after the verb and another word or phrase, or in a marked position at the beginning of the clause. For example, the adverb mildly is used :
immediately after a verb : Have a nice time, dear, and drive carefully.
after a verb and its object : Use a flash and position the camera carefully.
at the beginning of a clause : Carefully make a cut with a small knife.
The phrase on hold is used :
immediately after a verb : Everything is on hold until we know more.
after a verb and its object : He put his retirement on hold.
also : used with some nouns to show that the word is used in a way that is not typical of that type of noun. For example, also N in pl means that unlike most uncount nouns, this noun also has a plural form and use. Also is used with some adverbs and adjectives to show a pattern that is less common than the other patterns mentioned. For example, usu ADV with v, also ADV adj means that the adverb is usually used with a verb but is also used before an adjective.
before : before v means before a verb. The word is used before the main element in a verb group. For example, the adverb already is used :
before the whole verb group : those who already know of the delights of skiing.
immediately before the main element in the group : They had already voted for him at the first ballot.
no : used to indicate that a verb is not used in a particular way, for example no passive, or that a singular noun is also used without a determiner : also no det.
oft : used to indicate that a word or phrase often occurs in a particular pattern or behaves in a particular way.
only : used to indicate that a verb is always used in a particular way, for example only cont.
usu : used to indicate that a word or phrase usually occurs in a particular pattern or behaves in a particular way.
with : with is used when the position of a word or phrase is not fixed. This means that the word or phrase sometimes comes before the named word class and sometimes comes after it. For example, quickly at quick 1 has the pattern ADV with v. It occurs :
after the verb : Cussane worked quickly and methodically;
before the verb : She quickly looked away and stared down at her hands.
In addition, with cl is used when the word sometimes occurs at the beginning of the clause, sometimes at the end, and sometimes in the middle. For example, seriously has the pattern ADV with cl. It occurs :
at the beginning of the clause : Seriously, I only watch TV in the evenings.
at the end of the clause : All of us react favorably to those who take our views seriously.
in the middle of the clause : This approach is now seriously out of step with the times.
Elements used in patterns
adj : stands for adjective group. This may be one word, such as “happy”, or a group of words, such as “very happy” or “as happy as I have ever been”.
e.g. adj N : read 8 ... Ben Okri's latest novel is a good read.
adj-compar : stands for comparative adjective. This is used to indicate an adjective group with the comparative form of the adjective.
e.g. ADJ-compar than : old 2 ... Bill was six years older than David.
adj-superl : stands for superlative adjective. It is used to indicate an adjective group with the superlative form of the adjective.
e.g. ADV adj-superl : positively 1 ... This is positively the last chance for the industry to establish such a system.
e.g. ORD adj-superl : second 2 ... the party is still the second strongest in Italy.
adv : stands for adverb group. This may be one word, such as “slowly”, or a group of words, such as “extremely slowly” or “more slowly than ever”.
e.g. adv ADV : else 1 ... I never wanted to live anywhere else.
amount : means word or phrase indicating an amount of something, such as “a lot”, “nothing”, “three percent”, “four hundred pounds”, “more”, or “much”.
e.g. amount "and" ADV : above 2 ... Banks have been changing 25 percent and above for unsecured loans.
brd-neg : stands for broad negative, that is, a clause which is negative in meaning. It may contain a negative element such as “no-one”, “never”, or “hardly”, or may show that it is negative in some other way.
e.g. oft with brd-neg : approve 1 ... Not everyone approves of the festival.
cl : stands for clause.
e.g. cl ADV : anyway 4 ... What do you want from me, anyway?
color : means color word, such as “red”, “green”, or “blue”.
e.g. ADJ color : pastel ... pastel pink, blue, peach, and green.
compar : stands for comparative form of an adjective or adverb.
e.g. ADV compar : even 2 ... On television he made an even stronger impact as an interviewer.
cont : stands for continuous. It is used when indicating that a verb is always, usually, or never used in the continuous.
e.g. only cont : die 4 ... I'm dying for a breath of fresh air.
no cont : adore 1... She adored her parents and would do anything to please them.
def-n : stands for definite noun group. A definite noun group is a noun group that refers to a specific person or thing, or a specific group of people or things, that is known and identified.
e.g. QUANT 'of' def-n : whole 1 ... I was cold throughout the whole of my body.
def-pl-n : stands for definite noun group with a noun in the plural.
e.g. QUANT 'of' def-pl-n : many 1 ... It seems there are not very many of them left in the sea.
det : stands for determiner. A determiner is a word that comes at the beginning of a noun group, such as “the”, “her”, or “those”.
e.g. det ADJ : following 2 ... We went to dinner the following Monday evening.
-ed : stands for past participle of a verb, such as “decided”, “gone”, or “taken”.
e.g. ADV -ed : freshly ... freshly baked bread.
group : stands for noun group, adjective, adverb, or prepositional phrase.
e.g. ADV group : strictly ... He seemed fond of her in a strictly professional way.
imper : stands for imperative. It is used when indicating that a verb is always or usually used in the imperative.
e.g. only imper and inf : beware ... Beware of being too impatient with others.
inf : stands for infinitive form of a verb, such as “decide”, “go”, or “sit”.
e.g. ADJ to-inf : duty-bound ... I felt duty-bound to help.
ADV to-inf : yet 7 :... She has yet to spend a Christmas with her husband.
-ing : stands for present participle of a verb, such as “deciding”, “going”, or “taking”.
e.g. PREP -ing : before 2 ... He spent his early life in Sri Lanka before moving to Canada.
it : means an “introductory” or “dummy” it. It does not refer to anything in a previous sentence or in the world; it may refer to what is coming later in the clause or it may refer to things in general.
e.g. oft 'it' v-link ADJ to-inf : nice 7 ... It's nice to meet you.
n : stands for noun or noun group. If the n element occurs in a pattern with something that is part of a noun group, such as an adjective or another noun, it represents a noun. If the n element occurs in a pattern with something that is not part of a noun group, such as a verb or preposition, it represents a noun group. The noun group can be of any kind, including a pronoun.
e.g. ADJ n : abiding: ... He has a genuine and abiding love of the craft.
names : means names of places or institutions.
e.g. oft in names : requiem 2 ... a performance of Verdi's Requiem.
neg : stands for negative words, such as “not”, or ”never”.
e.g. with neg : dream 6 ... I wouldn't dream of making fun of you.
n-proper : stands for proper noun. A proper noun is the name of a particular person or thing.
e.g. usu n-proper N : lookalike ... a Marilyn Monroe lookalike.
num : stands for number.
e.g. num ADV : odd 3 ... How many pages was it, 500 odd?
n-uncount : stands for uncount noun or noun group with an uncount noun. An uncount noun is a noun which has no plural form and which is sometimes used with no determiner.
e.g. QUANT 'of' n-uncount : touch 13 ... She thought she just had a touch of the flu.
ord : stands for ordinal, such as “first”, or “second”.
e.g. ord ADJ n : generation 4 ... second generation Jamaicans in New York.
passive : stands for passive voice. It is used when indicating that a verb usually or never occurs in the passive voice.
e.g. usu passive : expel 1 ... More than five-thousand high school students have been expelled for cheating.
pl : stands for plural.
pl-n : stands for noun in the plural, plural noun group, or co-ordinate noun group (two or more noun groups joined by a co-ordinating conjunction).
e.g. PREP pl-n : between 2 ... I spent a lot of time in the early Eighties travelling between Waco and El Paso.
pl-num : stands for plural number. A plural number is a number which is used only in the plural.
e.g. PREP poss pl-num : in 5 ... young people in their twenties.
poss : stands for possessive. Possessives which come before the noun may be a possessive determiner, such as “my”, “her”, or “their”, or a possessive formed from a noun group, such as “the horse's”. Possessives which come after the noun are of the form “of n”, such as “of the horse”.
e.g. usu pl, with poss : ancestor 1 ... our daily lives, so different from those of our ancestors.
prep : stands for prepositional phrase or preposition.
e.g. prep PRON : him 1 ... Is Sam there? Let me talk to him.
pron : stands for pronoun. A pronoun is a word such as “I”, “it”, or “them” which is used like a noun group. It refers to someone or something that has already been mentioned or whose identity is known.
e.g. PREP pron : before 12 ... Everyone in the room knew it was the single hardest task before them.
pron-indef : stands for indefinite pronoun. An indefinite pronoun is a word like anyone, anything, everyone and something.
e.g. pron-indef ADJ : else 2 ... I expect everyone else to be truthful.
pron-refl : stands for reflexive pronoun, such as “yourself”, “herself”, or “ourselves”.
e,g, PREP pron-refl : among 9 ... The girls stood aside, talking among themselves.
quest : stands for question word. A question word is a wh-word such as “what”, “how”, or “why” which is used to begin a question.
e.g. quest ADV : ever 6 ... Why ever didn't you tell me?
sing : stands for singular.
sing-n : stands for noun in the singular.
e.g. PREDET det sing-n : all 2 ... She's worked all her life.
supp : stands for supplementary information accompanying a noun. Supplementary information that comes before a noun may be given by a determiner, possessive, adjective, or noun modifier. Supplementary information that comes after the noun may be given by a prepositional phrase or a clause.
e.g. supp N : park 2 ... a science and technology park.
that : stands for “that”-clause. The clause may begin with the word “that”, but does not necessarily do so.
e.g. usu N that : conviction 1 ... It is our conviction that a step forward has been taken.
to-inf : stands for to-infinitive form of a verb.
e.g. v-link ADJ to-inf : inclined 2 ... I am inclined to agree with Alan.
v : stands for verb or verb group. It is not used to represent a link verb. See also the explanations of after, before and with.
e.g. v PRON : her 1 ... I told her I had something to say.
v PREP n : at 10 ... She opened the door and stood there, frowning at me.
v-link : stands for link verb. A link verb is a verb such as “be” which connects a subject and a complement.
e.g. v-link ADJ : down 3 ... The computer's down again.
wh : stands for wh-word, or clause beginning with a wh-word, such as “what”, “why”, “when”, “how”, “if”, or “whether”.
e.g. ADJ 'about' n/wh : tight-lipped 1 ... Military officials are still tight-lipped about when their forces will launch a ground offensive.

著作権

『コウビルド英英和辞典(米語版)』は、英国HarperCollins社より出版されている英英和辞典「Collins COBUILD English/Japanese Advanced Dictionary of American English」の初版です。
Collins COBUILD English /Japnanese Advanced Dictionary of American English [1st ed.] © HarperCollins Publisher 2008
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